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City of London - Wikipedia. This article is about the historic city and financial district within London. For the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, see London.
For other uses, see City of London (disambiguation). The City of London is a city and county that is an enclave of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 3. Greater London; however, the City of London is not a London borough, a status reserved for the other 3. London's only other city, the City of Westminster).
The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising City) and is also colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is 1. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City. The name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 3.
London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1. County of London was created.The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is also unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries. The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from (and much older than) the Mayor of London. The current Lord Mayor, as of November 2.
Andrew Parmley. The City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 1. City was the world's primary business centre, and it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2. The insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf, 2.
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The City has a resident population of about 7,0. The legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City, especially in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary. HistoryOriginsIt used to be widely held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 4. AD, during the early years of the Roman occupation of Britain. However, this date is only supposition.
A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town in general English language. Plan your trip with free itineraries, guides, activities and maps. Create your personal travel guide with full information on all attractions, shopping and more. The App Showcase is a collection of applications developed and built by the City of Ottawa and private third parties using datasets published by the City of Ottawa.
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The Romans have left no record of when or how the city was founded and the first time they mention the city is in the annals of Tacitus (in 6. AD) when he relates how Londinium was among a group of important cities sacked by the Iceni, led by their queen, Boudica.
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Many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 4. AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend. Archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.[1. One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned "Waterloo Helmet" dredged from the Thames in the early 1.
British Museum.[1. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre- existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him. The same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was later buried at Ludgate (Welsh: Porthlud).[1. Llydd was the eldest son.
And after his father (Beli Mawr) was dead he took the government of the island. And he strengthened the walls of Llvndain, surrounded the city with many farmsteads, and lived in it the greater part of the year. And he had built within the city walls splendid buildings the like of which were not seen in all countries. And he called it Kaer Lvdd; and in the end it was called Kaer Lvndain. And, after the coming of the alien nation into it, it was called Kaer Lwndwn.[1.
Ystorya Brenhined y Brytanyeit, Jesus MS. LXI. Nevertheless, after the conquest the Romans certainly developed the settlement and port, with its centre roughly where the shallow stream the Walbrook met the Thames. After the city had been destroyed by Boudica in 6.
AD it was entirely rebuilt as a planned settlement (a civitas), and the new walled town was prosperous and grew to become the largest settlement in Roman Britain by the end of the 1st century. By the beginning of the 2nd century, Londinium had replaced Camulodunum (Colchester) as the capital of Roman Britain ("Britannia"). At its height, the Roman city had a population of approximately 4. The Romans built the London Wall some time between 1.
AD. The boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though Londinium did not extend further west than Ludgate or the Fleet, and the mid- estuary Thames was undredged and wider than it is today thus, the City's shoreline was north of its present position. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as 5. AD, near to today's London Bridge. A number of Roman sites and artefacts can be seen in the City, including the Temple of Mithras, sections of the London Wall (at the Barbican and near Tower Hill), the London Stone and remains of the amphitheatre beneath the Guildhall. The Museum of London holds many of the Roman finds, has permanent Roman exhibitions and holds research collections. DeclineBy the time the London Wall was constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, and it faced problems of plague and fire. The Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain.
In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts, Scots, and Saxon raiders. The decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, and in 4. AD the Romans withdrew entirely from Britain.
Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, and gradually after the formal withdrawal the city became almost (if not, at times, entirely) uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic ("London market"), a settlement to the west, roughly in the modern day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area.Anglo- Saxon restorationDuring the Anglo- Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex, Mercia, and later Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was frequently under the control or threat of the Vikings. Bede records that in 6.
AD St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo- Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop.[1. It is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo- Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the later medieval and the present cathedrals.Alfred the Great, King of Wessex and arguably the first king of the "English", occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 8. Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of England.
The refortified Anglo- Saxon settlement was known as Lundenburh ("London Fort", a borough). The historian Asser said that "Alfred, king of the Anglo- Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly .. Alfred's "restoration" entailed reoccupying and refurbishing the nearly deserted Roman walled city, building quays along the Thames, and laying a new city street plan.[1. Alfred's taking of London and the rebuilding of the old Roman city was a turning point in history, not only as the permanent establishment of the City of London, but also as part of a unifying moment in early England, with Wessex becoming the dominant English kingdom and the repelling (to some degree) of the Viking occupation and raids. While London, and indeed England, were afterwards subjected to further periods of Viking and Danish raids and occupation, the establishment of the City of London and the Kingdom of England prevailed.[1.
In the 1. 0th century, Athelstan permitted eight mints to be established, compared with six in his capital, Winchester, indicating the wealth of the city. London Bridge, which had fallen into ruin following the Roman evacuation and abandonment of Londinium, was rebuilt by the Saxons, but was periodically destroyed by Viking raids and storms. As the focus of trade and population was moved back to within the old Roman walls, the older Saxon settlement of Lundenwic was largely abandoned and gained the name of Ealdwic (the "old settlement"). The name survives today as Aldwych (the "old market- place"), a name of a street and an area of the City of Westminster between Westminster and the City of London. Medieval era.
Map of London in about 1. Following the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror marched on London (reaching as far as Southwark), but failed to get across London Bridge or to defeat the Londoners. He eventually crossed the River Thames at Wallingford, pillaging the land as he went. Rather than continuing the war, Edgar the Ætheling, Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria surrendered at Berkhamsted. William granted the citizens of London a charter in 1. City was one of a few examples of the English retaining some authority.
The City was not covered by the Domesday Book. William built three castles nearby, to keep Londoners subdued: About 1.